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The Chenda is a cylindrical percussion instrument used widely in the state of Kerala, India. It is also used in some parts of Karnataka where it is called the Chande.The chenda is mainly played as an accompaniment in the Hindu religious art forms of Kerala. The chenda is used as an accompaniment for Kathakali, Koodiyattam, Kannyar Kali and among many forms of dances and rituals in Kerala. It is also played in a dance-drama called Yakshagana which is popular in Karnataka. It is traditionally considered to be an 'Asura Vadyam' which means it cannot go in harmony. A chenda is made out of a cylindrical wooden drum, and has a length of 2 feet and a diameter of 1 foot. Both ends are covered (usually with cow skin). The chenda is suspended from the drummers neck so that it hangs
vertically. Using two sticks, the drummer strikes the upper parchment. This instrument is famous for its loud and rigid sound.


The modern violin was developed in Italy in the sixteenth century using the techniques used in a variety of other stringed instruments, but mainly the viol. The viol had more strings than we see on the violin and the body was not convex, but was flat. The most famous violin in the world is the Stradivarius, named after its maker, Antonio Stradivari from the Italian town of Cremona. Although there have been a few minor changes in the overall design of the violin, the designs of the Italian masters, the design has basically remain the same.

A violin is a hollow wooden box with rounded ends and a narrow center. The front and the back of the instrument are slightly convex and connected to each other by the sides, also called ribs. There are four sets of strings on a violin that extend from a string holder at the bottom of the body, over a raised bridge to the end of the narrow neck, which is called the fingerboard. On the fingerboard, the four strings are inserted into a peg box and are held there with pegs. The pegs are twisted in order to tune the violin, in much the same way as you tune a guitar, in order to raise or lower the pitch of each string. The bow is a long arched strip of wood with horsehair strings stretched along its length. When the bow is drawn across the strings on the body of the violin it produces a sound.

The body of the violin is a resonator, which means that it amplifies the vibration produced by drawing the bow across the strings. There is a block of wood inside the body of the violin, called a sound post and this device helps to coordinate the vibrations of the front and back panels. There are two F-shaped holes in the table near the bridge that lets the panels vibrate freely.


Tambura is an Indian music instrument, which is known by the name of tanpura in North India. It is unfretted and round-bodied, with a hollow neck and four or five (rarely six) wire strings. The strings of the tambura are plucked one after another in a standard pattern, in order to create a tonic resonance field Hindustani classical music. The instrument comes in different sizes, with the larger ones known as the 'males', while the smaller ones known as 'females'. Read on to get complete information on tambura.

The male tambura has an open string, which is approximately one meter in length. On the other hand, the string of a female tanpura is only three-forth of an inch. The standard tuning of a tanpura is 5881 sol do' do' do. In Indian sargam, it comes out to be PA SA sa SA. In the five stringed tambura, the seventh or NI (natural minor or major 7th) is added. The principle of jivari, which produces rich buzzing sound, is applied in order to attain the overtone-rich sound.

Famous instrumentalists
Zakir Hussain
G. Ramakrishnan
Ali Akbar Khan
Hariprasad Churasiaya
Kadri Gopalnath
Ustad Allarakha
Pandit Ravi Shankar
Ustad Bismillah Khan Sahib
Pandit R K Bijapure Maha Meru
N. Muralikrishnan
L. Subramaniam
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